2016, Number 09
Risk factors for cardiovascular disease in patients with hypertensive disorders during pregnancy. Experience of 10 years
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ABSTRACTBackground: The 8 to 10% of pregnancies are affected with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. They are the most common obstetric complication and present significant maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality; but also these diseases go beyond pregnancy and determine a group of women with increased cardiovascular risk in your life futura. Cardiovascular disease remains the main cause of death in the Western world and women with a history of pregnancy hypertensive disease, are at increased risk of cardiovascular complications afterwards. Therefore, pregnancy is a unique physiological situation provides an opportunity to identify a group of women who will present cardiovascular risk factors later in life.
Objetive: To determine the long-term cardiovascular risk factors (chronic hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome) and thyroid dysfunction incidence in women who have previously been diagnosed with "hypertensive disorders of pregnancy".
Material and Methods: Case-control study with retrospective collection of information from women whose pregnancy and childbirth occurred between 2000 and 2010. Case: Patients with a diagnosis of "hypertensive diseases of pregnancy" (N = 134). Control: random sample of pregnant women who were not diagnosed with hypertensive state of pregnancy and whose gestation was spent in 2000 (n = 145). The mean follow-up of both groups was 10,78 years. We have applied parametric test (T-Student for independent samples), and for those variables that did not meet that condition, we have applied the U of Mann-Whitney test. The Chi-square test was used to compare qualitative variables and Fisher's exact test. For comparison between groups, model univariate logistic regression was performed.
Results: The incidence of hypertension was 41,32% in patients with a history of hypertensive pregnancy disease, with a relative risk (RR) was 9,15. The incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus was 5,17%. Dyslipidemia was diagnosed after at 43,53% with a RR of 3,7. Metabolic syndrome reached 16,83% in the cases population with a RR of 2,63. The incidence of hypothyroidism was 8,11%.
Conclusions: Patients who were diagnosed with "hypertensive state of pregnancy" are a group of women at increased risk of developing cardiovascular risk factors later in life.
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