2016, Number 12
Ginecol Obstet Mex 2016; 84 (12)
Domínguez-Vigo P, Domínguez-Sánchez J, Álvarez-Silvares E, González-González A
PDF size: 310.48 Kb.
ABSTRACTObjetive: Evaluate the incidence in women diagnosed with gestational diabetes risk for developing diabetes mellitus type 2 and others cardiovascular risk factors.
Material and Methods:: A retrospective, case-control study was made with an average follow-up period of 12.9 years. Cases group: patients diagnosed with gestational diabetes and glycemic control over the past 3 years. Control group: random sample were normoglycemic pregnant women in pregnancy. We analyzed: age, BMI, gestational diabetes in more than one pregnancy, type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and metabolic syndrome. The calculation of the relative risk was performed by chi² test or Fisher’s exact test. Data were analyzed with SPSS.15 and Epidat3.0.
Results: The incidence of diabetes mellitus type 2 in women with a history of gestational diabetes was 13.3%, while if her pregnancy was normoglycemic the incidence was 0.7% (p=0.004). The RR of diabetes mellitus in the case group was 17.3 (p=0.004). When the woman was diagnosed in more than one pregnancy gestational with diabetes this risk was to 40.4. The incidence of hypertension in the case group was 14.8 vs 7.69% (p=0.05). The history of gestational diabetes confers a RR for subsequent development of hypertension of 1.93 (p=0.04). Dyslipidemia was more frequent in patients with previous diagnosis of gestational diabetes (47.1 vs 26.4%). A RR of 1.54 for subsequent dyslipidemia (p=0.03) was calculated. The 13.4% of the cases group developed metabolic syndrome during the follow-up period (p=0.002). The RR conferred gestational diabetes for subsequent development of metabolic syndrome, with 8.7 (p=0.003).
Conclusion: The history of gestational diabetes was a risk factor for later development of diabetes mellitus type 2, hypertension, obesity, dyslipidemia and metabolic syndrome.